Noted naval exploring captain; surveyor and hydrographer; Vice-Admiral; pioneering weather forecaster, founder of the Met Office (first Meteorological Statist to the Board of Trade); governor of New Zealand. Robert Fitzroy was a man of parts, who made a great impact on the world.
But he sits in the shadow of Charles Darwin, who accompanied him on his 1831-6 circumnavigation in HMS Beagle. This September (8-13) the Progress Theatre in Reading, jointly with WAM, the Festival of Weather, Arts and Music, is staging Juliet Aykroyd’s play ‘Darwin and Fitzroy’. Each day, the performance is supported by a side event celebrating Fitzroy’s life and influence, and on Thursday September 11th that side event is me, talking about oldWeather. (We have not put the Beagle on oldWeather (yet) but I’ve got her weather observations from the 1831-6 circumnavigation).
Why not come along? Tickets are £10 (£8 concessions) – it’s an amateur performance, that’s just to cover the theatre costs. There is a different side-event on each day, but if you choose to come on Thursday, I’ll be happy to see you.
Naval-History.net has been a core partner since the very start of oldWeather: That’s where we publish all the historical events we find in the logbooks – these are being carefully edited into ship histories (UK and US) by a team of volunteers. Naval-History.net is also run by a group of dedicated (and expert) amateurs, and adding the vast quantity of new material we are transcribing is a lot of work. Some of our volunteer editors have taken on the additional responsibility for this, and Gordon (who runs Naval-History.net) has added them to his crew:
- Navigator Maikel prepares and publishes completed RN and US ship histories. In addition, he has published a large backlog of RN ship histories that were waiting for the addition of corrected navigation data and Journey Plotter maps (Maikel built the Journey Plotter program in his spare time), and published new US logs ready for editing. Not only that; he has created individual pages for the ships in the overhauled US index, and made many behind the scenes improvements, such as redirection pages and improvements to the RN index page.
- Paymaster Janet sends out transcribed logs for editing and receives the completed edits in return. She checks them for style and obvious errors before making them available for Maikel to publish on the Naval-History website. She also keeps track of the status of all available logs – waiting to be edited, being edited, complete and published, or awaiting publication or updates; she also keeps record of which logs have been reserved by which editors. Janet also has checked the new US ship files for errors and supplied missing service histories.
- Leading Stoker Howard does a lot of background work. He converts oldWeather’s plain text transcription files into the formatted Word files that Janet sends to the editors. He also creates many Journey Plotter maps for those editors who request his help. He corrects or adds latitudes/longitudes as necessary that allow Journey Plotter to produce maps – both of the ship’s full voyage and of more detailed sub-sections. Leading Stoker is his choice of rank; he keeps the fires burning.
- Leading Telegraphist/Writer Caro advertises, using Naval-History’s accounts, new and updated ship histories on the social media, getting the word out on Facebook, Twitter and Google+. She also rewrites important sections of text for the Naval-History site and supplies artwork on occasion. She created the new logo for Naval-History.net that is starting to appear on the site and in social media.
The UK is too small to have its own weather, we participate in the weather of the North Atlantic region, or indeed the whole world. So to understand why the last UK winter was record-breakingly wet, we need to look at atmospheric behaviour on a large scale. I’ve turned to MERRA – an hour-by-hour reconstruction of the whole atmosphere – and made the video of northern hemisphere weather above. (There’s a lot going on, I recommend watching it in full-screen, press the ‘X’ on the control bar).
The key feature is the sequence of storms that spin off North America, and then head out into the North Atlantic in the Prevailing Westerly Circulation (anti-clockwise in the projection of the video). In November these storms mostly follow the standard path northwest to Greenland or Iceland and Scandinavia, but in December the weather changes: North America becomes much colder and the path of the storms moves south, driving the bad weather straight at the UK. This persistent pattern of a cold North America and southerly Atlantic Storm Track is the outstanding feature of the winter, and it shows up even more clearly a bit higher in the atmosphere – the Upper-Level Winds have a simpler structure, as they are not complicated by contact with the Earth’s surface.
The temperature difference between cold polar air and warmer southerly air stirs up an overturning circulation, and the rotation of the Earth turns this into a strong anti-clockwise (westerly) rotating wind – the Polar Vortex. As early as 1939, Carl-Gustaf Rossby realised that this circulation would not be smooth and stable, and the characteristic undulations (Rossby waves) have a major impact on our weather. It’s a series of these waves that push cold polar air much further south than usual over eastern North America, producing a Very Cold Winter in those parts, shifting the storm tracks south and causing the wet, stormy weather in the UK.
But of course I’m not really interested in modern weather – that’s too easy, with ample satellite observations and tremendous tools like MERRA to show us what’s going on. The challenge is in providing the long-term context needed to understand these modern events – is there a consistent pattern, if not, what’s changed. And it just happens that a previous Markedly Wet UK Winter occurred 99 years earlier, in 1914/5, and we’ve been rescuing logbook observations for that time so we can use them to make improved studies of that winter.
This time we use the Twentieth Century Reanalysis (more precisely a test version of 20CR updated to benefit from oldWeather-rescued observations). In some areas (most obviously the high Arctic) there are no observations so the analysis is too uncertain to be useful, but over the US, UK, and Atlantic storm-track region we can reconstruct the weather of that year.
Again, the picture is clearer if we look at the upper-level circulation:
Do we see the same picture in 1914/5 as in 2013/4? Reality tends to be somewhat messier than the simple explanations that scientists treasure – but I think we do see the same pattern: a persistent tendency for cold, polar air to extend south over North America, and a North Atlantic storm track shifted to the south.
We can say quite precisely what happened last winter, and (thanks, in part, to oldWeather) how last winter compared to previous Exceptional Winters. However the obvious follow-on question is ‘Why did the polar vortex behave like that, and can we predict when it’s going to do it again? We’re still working on that one.
To achieve a million once may be regarded as good fortune; to do so twice looks like carefulness, skill, enthusiasm, and dedication.
We’ve been working on the US Arctic logbooks since July 2012, and in that time we’ve rescued one million weather observations (actually 1,081,641 as of March 11th). That’s an awesome achievement – even more awesome than it seems at first, as a single weather observation is a complex object containing a lot of information. Our 1,081,641 observations comprise:
- 960,221 air pressures,
- 2,782,755 temperatures (950,351 dry-bulb, 765,270 wet-bulb, 597,556 barometer and 469,578 sea),
- 1,020,223 present weather codes,
- 1,049,692 wind directions,
- 1,019,268 wind forces,
- 864,586 cloud fractions, and
- 846,859 cloud types.
To record all that, we’ve typed 21,511,795 characters – about 20 times the length of a typical novel.
However you look at it, that’s a tremendous achievement.
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Thanks again to the sponsors, organisers, and judges, of the 2013 International Data Rescue Award in the Geosciences, for adding to our project laurels.
This week, atmospheric scientists are gathering in Queenstown, New Zealand, for the fifth general assembly of the SPARC program (Stratosphere-troposphere Processes And their Role in Climate). We’ve mentioned New Zealand before: both as a country who’s isolation means that its historical weather is poorly documented, and as a Battlecruiser in the original oldWeather fleet. In September 1919 the two met: the battlecruiser visited the country, giving us an opportunity to make a major improvement in reconstructing the climate of the region.
As we showed back in October, we’re now re-doing our analysis of global weather, so we can see exactly how much the observations we’ve recovered from HMS New Zealand have improved our knowledge of the climate of New Zealand (the country). The figure above (made for the SPARC meeting) shows our estimates of the weather in each region visited by HMS New Zealand during her circumnavigation in 1919: blue for before oldWeather, and red a new revision using our observations. The width of the band indicates uncertainty – narrower is better – and the improvement we’ve made is very large.
We chose our first batch of logbooks to cover the period of the First World War, as our climate records from this period were particularly poor. This gave us not only invaluable new climate information, but also a new look at a key historical period which is about to reach its centenary.
To use our historical results, we teamed up with Gordon and Naval-History.net. In Gordon’s words: ‘Our present world has been shaped by World War 1 – as much a maritime war as World War 2. Not just the Battle of Jutland or the Allies near-defeat by the U-boats, but Mediterranean, Belgian coast, South West & South Africa, East Africa, Persian Gulf, German raiders, Atlantic convoys, North Russia.’ We need to present our logbook records so they can contribute to public and scholarly understanding of the period.
The transcribed and edited logbook records are now a major component of naval-history.net, where they are described as:
British warship log books of the World War 1 era, totalling some 300,000 pages. The logs of over 300 ships have been transcribed, and most are online. They include coverage of Battle of the Falklands, Northern Patrol, Dardanelles, East Africa, trans-Atlantic convoys, Indian Ocean, China Station, amounting to some 60-70 percent of all major warship movements 1914-18, outside of British home waters.
But they are not enough on their own, we should combine them with other sources of information. Naval-History.Net has prepared for the centenary for some years, using contemporary sources where possible and more recent research where available. Current projects include:
- Chronology providing the political and military background to the war at sea.
- Naval Operations by Corbett and Newbolt – many of the excellent plans are online including all the Battle of Jutland – and the three volume Merchant Navy histories by Hurd.
- Navy despatches and relevant Army despatches from the London Gazette. Also Royal Navy honours and gallantry awards by award and by Gazette date. Includes Medal index/database by name.
- Royal Navy and Royal Marine casualties (researched by Don Kindell working with the Naval Historical Branch (MOD)), as well as those of the Dominion Navies and U.S. Navy & Marine Corps.
- Royal Navy warships and auxiliaries from the invaluable “Ships of the Royal Navy 1914-1919″ by Dittmar and Colledge. Although still in progress, all warships and many of the auxiliaries are listed by name and by type/class.
One of the fun parts of working as a scientist is going to conferences, and in the geosciences, conferences don’t come much bigger than AGU. The American Geophysical Union’s 46th annual Fall Meeting ran last week in San Francisco, and it brought together more than 22,000 scientists for a week of presentations, discussions, celebrations, and beer.
Our man at AGU this year was Gil Compo, and he represented oldWeather at an important side event: The prize ceremony for the 2013 International Data Rescue Award in the Geosciences. We didn’t quite win this prize (the winner was the excellent Nimbus Data Rescue Project), but the judges liked us a lot, and we were awarded an honourable mention. So well done to all the oldWeather participants on a further well-deserved honour, and thanks to the award sponsors and organisers.
Every scientist’s must-have accessory, at any large conference or meeting, is a poster: This is a large sheet of paper (typically A0, or about 4′ by 3′) covered with artistically arranged images and results from your project, which you attach to a wall or display board, and use as a visual aid. Kevin made an excellent poster for us, combining images from all aspects of the project. You can see it on display in the background of the photo above, and if you’d like your own copy, it’s on our resources page.